One year ago, the Guardian published its first bombshell story based on leaked top-secret documents showing that the National Security Agency was spying on American citizens.
At the time, journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian never mentioned that they had a treasure trove of other NSA documents, nor that they came from one person. Then three days later, the source surprisingly unmasked himself: His name was Edward Snowden.
London Business School is top of the 2014 FT ranking of European business schools, regaining the position it last held in 2005. LBS pushed the 2013 joint winners HEC Paris and Spain’s IE Business School into second and third places respectively.
“This has been a miserable year for EM,” said Paul McNamara, investment director of emerging markets at GAM, the Swiss fund house. “There has been a steady bleed out of assets and no one is certain what shape the market might be in this time next week.”
1. Secret court orders allow NSA to sweep up Americans' phone records
The very first story revealed that Verizon had been providing the NSA with virtually all of its customers' phone records. It soon was revealed that it wasn't just Verizon, but 家居上市企业中报8月密集披露 in America.
This revelation is still one of the most controversial ones. Privacy advocates have challenged the legality of the program in court, and one Judge deemed the program unconstitutional and "almost Orwellian," while another one ruled it legal.
The existence of PRISM was the second NSA bombshell, coming less than 24 hours after the first one. Initially, reports described PRISM as the NSA's program to directly access the servers of U.S tech giants like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, among others.
PRISM, we soon learned, was less less evil than first thought. In reality, the NSA doesn't have direct access to the servers, but can request user data from the companies, which are compelled by law to comply.
PRISM was perhaps as controversial as the first NSA scoop, prompting technology companies to first deny any knowledge of it, then later fight for the right to be more transparent about government data requests. The companies ended up partially winning that fight, getting the government to ease some restrictions and allow for more transparency.
3. Britain's version of the NSA taps fiber optic cables around the world
For as long as the show has been running — ever since its debut in 2007 — we have been, it seems, suffering from what Hadley Freeman in The Guardian newspaper dubbed “madmenalaria.”
Tempora is one of the key NSA/GCHQ programs, allowing the spy agencies to collect vasts troves of data, but for some reason, it has sometimes been overlooked. After a couple of months from the Tempora revelation, a German newspaper revealed the names of the companies that collaborate with the GCHQ in the Tempora program: Verizon Business, British Telecommunications, Vodafone Cable, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute.
4. NSA spies on foreign countries and world leaders
Nineteen buildings disappeared in the space of 10 seconds after being demolished by a controlled explosion in China yesterday.
The German newsweekly Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA targets at least 122 world leaders.
Other stories over the past years have named specific targets like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Brazil's President Dilma Roussef, and Mexico's former President Felipe Calderon, the French Foreign Ministry, as well as leaders at the 2010 G8 and G20 summits in Toronto.
5. XKeyscore, the program that sees everything
XKeyscore is a tool the NSA uses to search "nearly everything a user does on the Internet" through data it intercepts across the world. In leaked documents, the NSA describes it as the "widest-reaching" system to search through Internet data.
6. NSA efforts to crack encryption and undermine Internet security
Encryption makes data flowing through the Internet unreadable to hackers and spies, making the NSA's surveillance programs less useful. What's the point of tapping fiber optic cables if the data flowing through them is unreadable? That's why the NSA has a developed a 电话骚扰120 推销团队被解散 to circumvent widely used web encryption technologies.
Common industries for college startups include catering, agriculture, IT, transportation, education and culture. 13.8% of the entrepreneurs were interested in hospitality and catering, while 13.7% chose agriculture, the report said.
Do you often feel gloomy and down in the dumps?
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回购股票会帮助推高股价，很多分析师将标准普尔500（Standard & Poor's 500 index）创下多次历史新高归功于股票回购的盛行。
Song “Wind Blowing In The Wheat Field” (Li Jian and Sun Li)
It is not hard to think of recent examples, from Hugo Chávez to Viktor Orban and Vladimir Putin.
The economy has registered a slower but stable performance with good momentum for growth.
adj. 确实的，保障的，有自信的 动词assure的过
7. NSA elite hacking team techniques revealed
The NSA has at its disposal an elite hacker team codenamed "Tailored Access Operations" (TAO) that hacks into computers worldwide, infects them with malware and does the dirty job when other surveillance tactics fail.
Der Spiegel, which detailed TAO's secrets, labelled it as "a squad of plumbers that can be called in when normal access to a target is blocked." But they can probably be best described as the NSA's black bag operations team.
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约瑟夫?斯蒂格利茨(Joseph Stiglitz)等诺贝尔经济学奖得主、比尔?麦吉本(Bill McKibben)等环保活动人士、乔治?索罗斯(George Soros)及新经济思维研究所(Institute for New Economic Thinking)、阿尔?戈尔(Al Gore)和其他现代思想家全都提醒我们，传统经济学家（以及他们效力的银行、企业和政府机构）都已对坏的经济学理论成瘾，他们在破坏美国的未来。
8. NSA cracks Google and Yahoo data center links
When bulk collection or PRISM fails, the NSA had other tricks up its sleeve: It could infiltrate links connecting Yahoo and Google data centers, behind the companies' backs.
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This story truly enraged the tech companies, which reacted with much more fury than before. Google and Yahoo announced plans to strengthen and encrypt those links to avoid this kind of surveillance, and a Google security employee even said on his Google+ account what many others must have thought privately: "Fuck these guys."
9. NSA collects text messages
Commodity-linked sectors have been especially hard hit in recent months. Mining-sector earnings tumbled 23 per cent last year. Oil and petrochemical refiners also saw profits slammed. Despite the fall in crude prices, many refiners remain subject to crude prices agreed to before the recent price drop, even as prices for their output fall.
‘Law & Order: SVU’ This NBC ripped-from-the-soap-opera perils of Olivia (Mariska Hargitay) — psychopath rapist-stalker, tortured love affair, new baby — that took up so much air last season finally died down, and this season, the show’s 16th, the detectives got back to sex crimes à clef, including a Ray Rice-inspired episode about a star sportscaster who was seen on a surveillance camera punching the lights out of his wife.
— James Ball (@jamesrbuk) January 16, 2014
Other documents also revealed that the NSA can "easily" crack cellphone encryption, allowing the agency to more easily decode and access the content of intercepted calls and text messages.
10. NSA intercepts all phone calls in two countries
The NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls made in the Bahamas and Afghanistan through a program called MYSTIC, which has its own snazzy logo.
Although various public incentives exist, many come in the form of tax breaks, low-interest loans or rebates. So a building might have to levy an assessment or raise maintenance to cover initial costs. “You run into the problem of nobody giving you the money upfront,” Mr. Luxemburg said.