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去库存仍是稳楼市主题 楼市面临改革“机遇窗口”

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 国税总局局长:4个月减税近2000亿 8000万人不再缴个税 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

广东:保护传统村落 严禁以保护为由开发房产

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

1、死侍
Gitanjali因为拿下了本次最高奖项,从而获得了一笔2.5万美元的奖金。
Rios is no stranger to hard work. She moved to the U.S. from El Salvador when she was a child. She graduated at the top of her high school class and raised a family while putting herself through college. She was not intimidated when she started Nation Waste Inc. At just 22, months after graduating from the University of Houston, she took out loans and purchased two trucks, jumping into the male-dominated waste-removal industry. Today, her Houston-based company has 24 full-time employees. "It is pretty amazing when I look back and see, I started as a little girl entering the United States with my parents and now I am truly living the American dream," says Rios.
中国富豪王健林旗下拥有AMC Theaters等产业,在今年的榜单上进入了前20位。
据中新网报道,德国工商总会外贸主管沃尔克·特赖尔表示,2016年下半年从德国出口到中国的货物量增长非常迅速。
这一数字是曼谷市人口(1000万)的两倍多。
10. 把单词画出来!

自信和迷茫只有一线之隔,而现在的科比·布莱恩特正横跨在这两端。这是在周二与勇士的比赛中我们唯一可以得出的结论。这位湖人队的超级明星打出了自己职业生涯当中,单场至少五次投篮的比赛中最糟糕的一场。
adj. 确实的,保障的,有自信的 动词assure的过
Tech giant Tencent's founder Pony Ma topped the list, with a fortune of 279 billion yuan, followed by Alibaba's Jack Ma, and Evergrande Group's Xu Jiayin, with their personal worth reaching 260 billion yuan, and 229 billion yuan, respectively.
《星球大战:侠盗一号》预计2016年12月16日上映。
John Stevenage, chief executive of British Mensa, said he was delighted for Nishi. He said: 'I hope she will make full use of her membership to meet new, like-minded people and challenge herself. Joining Mensa opens the door to an international network of more than 100,000 people and many members make friends for life.

Footnotes

  • 精细化运营 寓居的长租公寓突围之道
  • 现在基本上只能依靠其他制度(尤其是国会、法庭和媒体)以及公民。

“但书中又总是有人质疑他、说服他、跟他说‘慢着’。”
今年时装周预计在今年9月14日至18日举行,在此之前,由歌手帕洛玛费斯撰写并由善待动物组织出版的公开信中呼吁伦敦时装周和英国时装协会禁止动物皮草的使用。
In news that should come as little surprise to global air travelers, Singapore's done it again.
时尚界通常视历史为潜在灵感的百宝囊,可供随时汲取、混合搭配。即便如此,目前这一阶段对历史的依赖也太过极端。
华尔街、大街上和华盛顿的每一个人都在不断地忘记市场周期的基本原理。请记住:《笑傲股市》(How to Make Money in Stocks)作者、《投资者商务日报》(Investors Business Daily)的比尔?奥尼尔(Bill O'Neill)说,市场的上行周期平均为3.75年,下行周期平均为九个月。
The excitement was triggered by a Reuters story that cited documents about the potential transaction as the source of its information. Samsung actually has made at least one play for BlackBerry BBRY -19.77% before, in 2012. As to this latest rumor, the alleged takeover target was the first to refute that a deal is in the works.

宜家:家居用品中50%非可再生材料将被回收

References

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